BIISS JOURNAL, VOL. 38, NO. 4, October 2017

Abu Salah Md. Yousuf

COUNTERING LONE WOLF TERRORISM: CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES

Abstract

The increasing trend of lone wolf terrorism has emerged as a new security threat for many nations of the world. Though it is not a new phenomenon, due to technological expansion and online radicalisation, the fear of lone wolf attacks is rising all over the world. When countries have developed a strong surveillance mechanism against group terrorism, the terrorist masterminds are spreading extremist ideologies to motivate individuals for lone wolf attacks. However, there are many unresolved questions among the academics and practitioners on the issue of understanding and countering lone wolf terrorism: How to define lone wolf terrorism? What are the challenges to face lone wolves and what types of strategies are necessary to counter lone wolf attacks? Based on the existing literature, this study tries to review the ongoing debates on the definition of lone wolf terrorism and summarises some common features of lone wolf attackers. Nevertheless, due to diversified motivational and ideological factors, it is difficult for security forces to identify lone wolf attackers. Moreover, many lone wolves have psychological disorders and mental instability which is a problem to identify or convict them as a criminal before they carry out any attack. In addition, since lone wolves do not maintain any connected network, it is difficult to adopt preventive measures against them. To face lone wolves, the security forces need special surveillance mechanism and strong community engagement. Three dimensional strategies are recommended in the existing literature: motivational, surveillance and hard security approaches. The strategies need to be context-specific and compatible with particular country’s cultural and legal traditions.


Abu Salah Md. Yousuf is Senior Research Fellow at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). His e-mail address is: yousuf@biiss.org

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.


Mohammad Atique Rahman

COMPARATI VE ANALYSIS OF TRANS -BOUNDAR Y WATER GOVERNANCE OF GANGES-BRAHMA PUTRA -MEGHNA (GBM) AND LA PLATA River BASINS: ISSUES AND CONCERNS

Abstract

It is an un-denying fact that trans-boundary waters are the most critical natural resources which are not attributed to the political frontiers of the modern day countries. Trans-boundary water resources are essential to the continued life and wellbeing of the people, villages, cities and societies across the basin countries. However, the complexity arises on the issue of governing trans-boundary water resources. In this backdrop, this article attempts to bring examples of water governance practices aimed to manage La Plata river basin in Latin America in order to assess the current state of trans-boundary water governance of Ganges- Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) river basin in South Asia. The paper is based on the argument that sharing of the trans-boundary river requires governance mechanism at the regional level to make it effective and beneficial for all basin countries.


Mohammad Atique Rahman is Assistant Professor, Department of International Relations, University of Dhaka. His e-mail address is: atique@du.ac.bd

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.


Rubel Molla

THE ‘NEW NORMA L’ IN CHINA’S FOREIGN POLICY: IMPLICATIONS FOR BANGLADESH

Abstract

Since 1980s, China has experienced double digit growth, termed as ‘old normal’1 but recently the scenario has changed and the growth has slowed down significantly. President Xi Jinping has declared this trend as the ‘new normal’ which has been labelled by the analysts as a new strategy of Chinese foreign policy. China’s ‘new normal’ is based on a ‘political economy’ approach which is, through greater integration, anticipated to ensure sustainable relations with various regions and economies through trade and investment. China is expanding geoeconomically and geopolitically. It is promoting new economic model and pioneering new institutions to promote broader connectivity across different regions. Chinese foreign policy is also designed in line with the new economic and geostrategic ambitions. So, a deeper understanding is crucial about China’s foreign policy and its geopolitical and economic expansion through the ‘new normal’ policy that the Chinese leaders are promoting now. It is considered as the ideological basis of China’s economic and strategic expansion. This paper is to see how China’s expansion or geoeconomic and strategic ambition in Asia is realising through this new policy. Considering ‘new normal’ from the liberal perspective, this paper argues that China’s ‘new normal’ will facilitate its integration with the global and regional economy providing China with geostrategic leverages in Asia. Besides, it argues that ‘new normal’ manifests the strategic significance of neighbouring countries like Bangladesh with several positive impacts. Hence, the paper analyses the impacts of ‘new normal’ on a developing country like Bangladesh and addresses different aspects of cooperation and challenges involved with the implementation of ‘new normal’ policy.


Rubel Molla is Research Officer at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). His e-mail address is: rubeldups12@gmail.com

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.


Benuka Ferdousi
Nazmul Haque

CATALONIA CRISIS: EXPLORING THE GENESIS, NATURE AND MOTIVES

Abstract

The recent independence movement of Catalonia which culminated in declaring independence by Catalan Parliament has duly attracted a great deal of attention of media, academia and political analysts. It is an important development not only for Spain but also for the European Continent where a number of nationalist movements already exist. The article provides an in-depth analysis of the crisis with an aim to find its roots and define its character. It shows that Catalonia crisis originates from economic grievances; identity factor played a secondary role while political grievance acted as a vehicle. It also shows that Catalonia crisis is a revolution led by the middle class with divided support from the working people whereas opposed by the big capitalists1.


Benuka Ferdousi is Research Fellow at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). Her e-mail address is: benukabd@gmail.com Nazmul Haque is MSS student in the Department of Political Science, University of Dhaka. His e-mail address is: nazmulhaque.du.bd@gmail.com

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.


Lam-ya Mostaque
Syeda Tanzia Sultana

EXPLORING SOFT POWER POTENTIA LS OF BANGLADESH: RESOURCES, LIMITATIONS AND OPTIONS

Abstract

With the end of the Cold War, soft power has started to get prominence in international arena. Consequently, there is a growing awareness amongst big and small states to pursue soft power in order to achieve their foreign policy objectives. In this respect, this paper explores the soft power potentials of Bangladesh. Since its inception in 1971, Bangladesh’s foreign policy embeds the principle of peace and friendship to all and malice to none. It also encompasses the strive for renunciation of the use of force in international relations and for general and complete disarmament. In all, foreign policy of Bangladesh does not advocate the use of hard power. Given this backdrop, this paper argues that the concept of soft power offers a golden possibility for small states like Bangladesh to gain its foreign policy objectives by marking its footprints globally and regionally. This can only be achieved once it undertakes necessary steps to transform its soft power resource capacity into soft power capability. Based on these arguments, the paper explores the potential resources of Bangladesh’s soft power and its limitations. The paper ends with an exposition of possible options to develop its soft power capability further.


Lam-ya Mostaque is Research Officer at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). Her e-mail address is: lamya.mostaque@gmail.com Syeda Tanzia Sultana is Research Officer at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). Her e-mail address is: syedatanziasultana@gmail. com

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.