BIISS JOURNAL, VOL. 37, NO. 3, July 2016

Sajid Karim

UNDERSTANDING HIGH DISASTER RISK OF FLASH FLOOD IN HAOR REGION OF BANGLADESH


Abstract

The haor region, a wetland ecosystem situated in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh in the Meghna river basin, is one of the disaster hot-spots of the country. The area is geographically excluded and ecologically vulnerable. Furthermore, it is a part of Bangladesh where poverty is prevalent and natural disasters like floods and flash floods are very common. In 2017, the entire haor region of the country was inundated due to early flash flood, generated by relentless rain and onrush of flood water from the rivers upstream. Along with the destruction of huge crops, the flash flood caused havoc in the region by affecting livelihood opportunities including fisheries, duck farming, animal husbandry etc. Based on that, the study takes an attempt to identify the underlying factors responsible for high disaster risk of flash flood in the haor region. The study argues that high disaster risk in the region is attributed to multidimensional vulnerability factors which limit the coping capacity of the people living there and make them susceptible to disasters. Apart from the unique physical location and hydrological setting that makes the haor region severely exposed to flash floods, the study identifies socio-political, economic, environmental, institutional and governance related factors responsible for high disaster risk in the region.


Sajid Karim is Research Officer at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). His e-mail address is: sajidkarim87@gmail.com

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.


Shanjida Shahab Uddin

BRI AND BCIM-EC: OVERCOMING THE IMPEDIMENTS

Abstract

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is one of the largest development plans initiated by China which includes 65 countries covering Asia, Africa and Europe. While Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIM-EC) is a subregional cooperation that aims to introduce new impetus to economic and social development by linking the southwestern parts of China with northeastern region of India and the Bay of Bengal through Yangon and Mandalay in Myanmar, and Bangladesh. Although BCIM-EC was initiated long before the inception of BRI, China later incorporated it under BRI platform as one of the six economic corridors. Instead of analysing why BCIM-EC was incorporated within BRI, the paper attempts to focus on the impediments that BRI and BCIM-EC are facing during implementation phase. Therefore, the paper limits its scope to examine the impediments and investigate how China as a pioneer of BRI along with member countries of both BRI and BCIM-EC can overcome these emerging challenges. The paper attempts to formulate policy suggestions recommending strategies for China to overcome these impediments with the assistance and support of all the member countries of BRI and BCIM-EC.


Shanjida Shahab Uddin is Research Officer at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). Her e-mail address is: shanjidashahabuddin@gmail.com. An earlier version of the paper was presented in the CIISS-BIISS Workshop organised by the China Institute of International and Strategic Studies (CIISS), Beijing on 18 July 2017.

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.


Samia Zaman

CHINA AND THE US IN SOUTH ASIA: COOPERATION OR CONFRONTATION?

Abstract

South Asia is experiencing a new kind of dynamism with impressive economic growth coupled with changing geopolitical landscape. It is undergoing geopolitical transformations primarily driven by China’s growing political and diplomatic clout in the region and the US attempt to recalibrate its strategy in South Asia. These transforming dynamics are triggering new alliance system in the region between India and the US, on the one hand and Pakistan and China on the other. In this context, the central research question of the paper is, whether the increasing involvement and interest of China and the US in the region will lead to cooperation or confrontation. Therefore, the paper addresses several questions. It examines the significance of South Asia. It also explores the interests of both China and the US in South Asia with the focus on their existing level of involvement with the regional countries. Finally, the paper argues that China and the US, both are trying to maximise their share of world power in different regions in the world. In this process, they are competing in South Asia and the competition can have various vicissitudes, but there is always a threat that the competition could turn into a confrontation in the changing realities of South Asia.


Samia Zaman is Research Officer at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). Her e-mail address is: samiazaman.sz@gmail.com

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.


Md. Jahan Shoieb

RESTRICTIVE IMMIGRATION POLICIES AND IRREGULAR MIGRATION: SECURITY THREATS

Abstract

Irregular migration has become a subject of debate among policymakers in major migrant-receiving countries in recent years. Political leaders in those countries are facing enormous pressure to reduce the influx of irregular immigrants. There are some negative impacts of irregular migration on a host country, including deterioration of the rule of law, competition in the job market and added pressure on social security and public services. Major receiving countries are applying restrictive policies to reduce the number of immigrants. This article takes an endeavour at finding the effectiveness of restrictive immigration policies on curbing the flow of irregular immigrants. Besides, it attempts to identify major security threats emanating from irregular migration.


Md. Jahan Shoieb is Research Officer at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). His e-mail address is: jshoieb@gmail.com

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.


M Ashique Rahman

UNDERSTANDING THE CHANGING NATURE OF GLOBAL TERRORISM: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Abstract

Terrorism and violent extremism surpassing every region and almost all the countries of the contemporary world are posing the most crucial threat to international security and stability. Terrorism as a ‘tool, technique and method of achieving specific political objective’ has a history that can be traced back to millennia. An analysis of the history of modern terrorism, however, shows that over the years there have been unprecedented changes in the nature of global terrorism in terms of organising ideologies of terrorist groups, the tactics and weapons they have made use of and the targets. The main objective of the paper is to explore and understand these changes through historical analysis. The paper uses David C. Rapoport’s Four Waves Theory of the history of modern terrorism that provides a very useful framework in tracing and analysing the changes. Analysis in the paper reveals that changes in the nature of global terrorism in terms of transformations in tactics, weapons and targets have gone through an evolution buttressed by contemporary political factors, changes in sources of motivations i. e., ideologies, changes in technology and the enabling environment. The paper also reflects on the contemporary discourse as to whether we are experiencing a ‘new wave’ or ‘fifth wave’ and upholds the view that any analytical construction that suggests a ‘fifth wave’ based on differences in tactics, weapons and targets will be flawed and misconstrued.


M Ashique Rahman is Research Fellow at Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS). His e-mail address is: ashique04@gmail.com

© Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS), 2017.