Volume 21, No.3, July 2000
THE ECNOMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE OIC COUNTRIES AND POLICY OPTIONS
by M. Kabir Hussan
M. Kabir Hussan, Ph.D., is an Associate Professore of Finance, University of New Orleans, LA 70148,USA.
This paper examines the macroeconomic performance of the member countries of the Organization of Islamic Conference(OIC) in the decade of nineties with a focus on how they compare with other developing and developed nations. In general, we find that the OIC countries as a group are behind the developing countries, and there exists a wide disparity among the OIC member countries in terms of GDP, debt and FDI flows. The richer OIC member countries should consider setting in the poorer OIC countries in order to take advantage of their locational and relative comparative advantages. Intra-OIC trade can be improved substantially by private sector investment initiatives. Regional cooperation in terms of project-oriented arrangements should pave the way to the eventual OIC common market. OIC countries should emphasize backward and forward linkages in production and investment to reap the economies of scale, to increase the size of domestic and regional markets and to deal effectively with the EC, NAFTA and APEC.
POPULATION CARRTING CAPACITY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH
by Farah Hasin
Ms. Farah Hasin is a Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of Dhaka.
Rapid increase in population puts immense pressure on an economy and eats up a country’s finite resources at a pace faster than they can be regenerated. Lack of balance between such high growth of population and limited resource tends to hinder the sustainable development efforts of a country. Considering the principal resource endowments, in this study an attempt has been made to estimate the population carrying capacity (maximum member of population that can be sustained from a given endowment of resources) of Bangladesh in order to assess the limits to population growth. Examining the case of major resources i.e. agricultural output, fishery, and fuel wood, the study revealed dominant constraints as the country already reached the carrying capacity level. Positive result has been obtained for water resources, meaning only this particular resource is not currently indicating any constraint. However, when a single constraint binds all other carrying capacity measures become insignificant. The study further advocates for an integrated and comprehensive approach for talking the constraint in question.
IMPLEMENTETION OF GLOBAL ENVIRONMENTAL TREATIES IN BANGLADESH
by Liaquat A. Siddiqui
Mr. Liaquant A. Siddiqui, is Senior Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Dhaka and Member, Environmental Law commission, IUCN (Bonn).
In recent times, the issue of compliance with multilateral environmental treaties by the large majority of developing countries has received significant interest and attention both in the North and the South. While emphasizing the need for strengthening the compliance behaviour of developing countries, this article explores the legal and institutional issues of Bangladesh, a developing country party to major global environmental law enforcement mechanism of Bangladesh is highly government centered and the role of non-state actors such as individuals and NGOs are insignificant both at the policy-making and implementation levels. In order to improve the compliance behaviour of Bangladesh, the article advocates for the development of domestic legal and administrative frameworks supportive to achieve the broader objectives of the global environmental treaties ratified or acceded to by Bangladesh.
TOWARDS FREEDOM FROM FEAR : AN AGENDA FOR HUMAN SECURITY
David Preston, Don Hubert
David Preston, Don Hubert
HE MR. David Preston is High Commissioner of Canada in Bangladesh. Mr.Don Hubert, Ph. D. is a Senior Policy Advisor in the Canadian Department of foeign Affairs.
While the security of most countries has been enhanced in the post-Cold War period, the security of many people has not. Due to the persistence of civil wars and failing states, coupled with growing transnational threats such as the trade in small arms and narcotics, freedom from fear remains an elusive goal. Security policy needs to become “people-centred” and to be refocused on a broad range of threats. Addressing individual insecurity enhances national security by strengthening the state’s legitimacy and stability, and complements the human development by creating a safer and more conducive environment. For the past three years, Canada and is partners have been promoting “human security” Two clear examples of this perspective are the banning of landmines and the establishment of an International Criminal Court. It is of heart of an initiative on the protection of civilians in armed conflict within the Security Council, and the growing movement to respond to the needs of children in armed conflict. In the face of genocide and crimes against humanity, such a perspective also demands military intervention by the international community. These issues require urgent attention and can best be addressed through a new approach to diplomacy based on partnerships with countries, international organ organizations and NGOs, and by direct engagement with civil society and the public at large.