Volume 25, No.1, January 2004

 

NUCLEAR DOCTRINES OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

by Mohd Aminul Karim

Major General Mohd Aminul Karim, ndc, ldmc, psc is Adjutant General, Bangladesh Army. E-mail: mdaminulkarim@yahoo.com.

 

        The paper examines the evolving nuclear doctrines and the command and control mechanisms of both India and Pakistan. Ambiguities in the doctrines and in the nebulous command and control mechanisms have been identified as areas that need to be given due consideration for regional and global security. The paper also shows how the doctrine leads to the development, refinement, lethality, penetrability etc. of the different components of nuclear arsenals. A step by step comparison of both doctrines has been made to explain the security implications for neighbouring countries, but most importantly to identify the doctrines’ shortcomings. The paper concludes that a de-nuclearized South Asia is almost impossible due to China’s proximity to the region and therefore efforts should be made to keep both the belligerents engaged in dialogue. Internal national pressure, matured and rational decision-making by the leaders, international pressure, a mixture of deterrence and cost-benefit analysis are some suggested moves towards rapprochement between India and Pakistan.

 

COOPERATION IN FISHERIES AMONG THE BIMST-EC COUNTRIES

by M. A. R Kularatne

M. A. R. Kularatne, is Director General, National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency, Crow Island, Colombo 15, Sri Lanka. An earlier version of the paper was presented at an international Dialogue on Sub-regional Cooperation among the BIMST-EC Countries and the Role of Japan organized jointly by the Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies (BIISS) and the Japan Studies Center, University of Dhaka, on March 11-12, 2002.

          BIMST-EC countries are situated bordering the Bay of Bengal? a large marine ecosystem. Located in the monsoon belt, this region is bordered by five countries - Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand. All are developing countries in the Asian region and, among them, India and Thailand are strong in technologies in the fisheries sector when compared to the other three countries. The coastal and offshore waters of the region support numerous fisheries, which are of great socio-economic importance to the countries, and provide for direct employment to around two million fishermen. Among the most important of these are the inshore small pelagics, demersal and shrimp fisheries. During the last decade, fish landings of the BIMST-EC region have increased mostly due to the increase in fishing effort. Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) has gone down in many commercially important fisheries. Many of the fishery resources of the BIMST-EC area have been heavily exploited due to unregulated and unmanaged fishing practices. This is further complicated by poor national resources management practices, unaddressed transboundary environmental and fisheries issues combined with the open access nature of fisheries. Inland fisheries and aquaculture are also important sectors where river, tributaries, floodplains, lakes, swamps, reservoirs and ponds are an integral part of protein supply to most rural communities of the BIMST-EC region. Cooperation in fisheries among BIMST-EC countries is essential to manage specially the coastal and nearshore resources in a co-ordinated and integrated manner.

 

MODERNIZATION, REFORMS AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

by Aravind B. Yelery

Aravind B. Yelery, Doctoral Researcher, Centre for East Asian Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. His e-mail address is aravind009@hotmail.com

  

         As China is heading towards the status of a developed country, fierce contest is taking place between the market and the state. At the start of the economic reforms, the market was seen as the healing factor and the catalyst for China’s underdeveloped economy, but globalization and the growing presence of different economic forces have challenged the credibility of these reforms. The regional policy and the increasing gap between the regions is an example of such dichotomy. Development under Mao and Deng Xiaoping was linear in nature. The inward flow of resources in Mao’s era and the development of the coastal region under the preferential policies of Deng represented the linear mindset of development. The growing regional economic disparity in China in the post-1978 reforms questions the basic motive of modernisation efforts. This paper presents and analyzes this paradox between reforms and disparity. The accession to WTO and the wave of globalization have further made the scenario very critical.

BORDER SECURITY AND THE MANAGEMENT OF NIGERIA’S RELATIONS WITH HER NEIGHBOURS

by Aja Akpuru-Aja

Aja Akpuru-Aja, Ph.D. is at the Department of International Relations & Strategic Studies, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria. His e-mail address is<doctorza2000@yahoo.com

          Colonialism and arbitrary boundary creation makes the issue of border security a grave concern for the African countries. However, promotion of bilateral and multilateral relations in diverse areas has provided the impetus for managing border tensions. Several considerations ranging from shared cultural and historical affinities to lessons from the 1967-1970 Civil War has influenced Nigeria’s `big brother’ image vis-a-vis its neighbours. The role of `big brother’ arises from Nigeria’s perception of low intensity threat from its weak and unstable neighbours. The paper identifies the reasons that lead to border tensions in Nigeria and analyses the rational of Nigeria’s `big brother’ type role vis-a-vis its neighbours in the West African sub-region.