Volume 24, No.1,  January 2003



by Sumaiya Khair

Ms. Sumaiya Khair, Ph. D, is Associate Professor, Department of Law, University of Dhaka.

              An Ideal human rights NGOs is one which is perceivably independent of both government as well as interest groups seeking direct political power and that does not itself seek such power. The characteristics that set human right NGO?s apart from other NGO?s are the volatile and often unpleasant relationship with governments, given that most    human right violations are committed at their behest. The contentious relationship that exit between human right NGO?s and governments is critical in assessing the structural and operation of these organizations at  both international and national context. Despite their structural differences the common mandate of these varies human rights NGO?s is to protect and promote human right worldwide. This paper attempts to explore and examine the role played by human rights NGO?s in their endeavors to achieve that goal. Since the field of human right is needed a broad one, most human rights NGOs prioritize the areas for intervention. Accordingly they constantly engage in a myriad of function in differing political, social, economic and cultural context in their efforts to assist those whose rights are jeopardized by the state and others.



 by  Abul Kalm azad

      Abul Kalm azad, Ph.D. is a   Senior  Research  Fellow at  the Bangladesh Institute of International and Strategic Studies(BIISS). Dhaka. His e-mail contact is: azadmmm@yahoo.com

             Standing at the threshold of the 21st  century, it is difficult for many to conceived of collapsed state i.e., states losing sovereignty and control over its territory, so long organized around the order as envisaged in the Westphalian state system. The phenomenon, therefore, is a new one in the domain international relations with many of its facets. While it is true that ?weak state syndrome? as is the case with the majority of the Third World state, is a procure to collapsed state, the fact remains that Third World polity is still   living with this reality and that many weak states are still surviving. The paper argues that, while the characteristics of collapsed state similar, their paths towards ?state failure? are different. This is because each state encounters different problems and trigger mechanisms in the long trajectory towards its decay and collapse. Empirical study, examination, therefore, finds prominence in the article followed by certain theoretical reflections on the concept. Given the fact that what weakness caused by failure in state building is the stating point in the trajectory of state collapse, a comprehensive state building in political, economic and social terms is the preventive strategy to salvage a number of third world weak, fragile and vulnerable states from plunging into any future decay and collapse.



by M. Tahlil Azim

    Nasir Uddin

   Mr. M. Tahlil Azim is Assistant Professor, School of Business,  Independent University,Bangladesh, Chittagong.

   Mr. Nasir Uddin is Assistant Professor, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Science and Technology, Chittagong. 


          The spectacular growth of garments sector in the Bangladesh in recent year has dramatically changed the landscape of export composition of the country. Once heavily dependent on exports of primary products led by jute, the economy of Bangladesh in now experiencing almost 76% export contribution from Ready Made Garments (RMG). With the blessing of cheap labour, pressure for globalization of production based on location economics as  well as the favorable  based on location economies, Bangladesh and some other developing countries have gradually become the gobal players in international trade in RMG. However, with the implementation of GATT convention issued at the conclusion of Uruguay round of negation, the multi-fiber Arrangement (MFA) facility which was extended to flavor least developed countries in exporting garments and textiles, is going to be phased out after 2004. Consequently, the beneficiaries of MFA, including Bangladesh will face severe competition in the unprotected world market.  Therefore, the major challenge of the garments industry in Bangladesh is to get prepared for survival and growth after year 2004. this paper in meant to put some light o0n this issue. The overall development of competitiveness from government. Industry Association (BGMEA) and the firm itself. The paper focuses on the facilitating role of the government and considers the role BGMEA in developing professionalism, industry, Finally, the role of firm-management to improve the competitiveness though the exploitation of an array of tools like, supply chain management, exploitation of production and information technology etc. are highlight.



 by Asif Altaf Kalam

     Abul Kalam,

Mr. Asif Aftab Kalam, Currently a graduate student in economics at the University of Dhaka.is Working as a Research Assistant in the Project " Role of Government and Civil Society in Sustainable Development : a Comperative Study of Japan and Bangladesh," a study sponsored by the Japan Foundation ( Tokyo ).He  is also a Research trainee under the Research Initiative.Bangladesh ( RIB ), a Research body that enjoys funding by the Royal Government of the Netherlands.

Mr. Abul Kalam, Ph. D. is Professor, Department of  International Relations, University of Dhaka.

            Bangladesh is faced with rampant poverty, high  population density  , recurring natural disasters and a dwindling natural recourse base. All these factors make it imperative for the country  to integrated and sustain all development concerns. Known as the land of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the role of NGOs especially those dedicated towards environmental causes are crucial towards the end. The paper considers the origins, typology and operational spheres of the NGOs in Bangladesh, focusing on the functional aspects of those categorized as environmental NGOs. It is observed that country ?s legacies of political tumult and environmental hazards and to still larger factors of misgovernance and alienation caused by autocracy and political instability;

But they owe their regulatory framework to the intermediary role of the foreign donors. Category-wise, the NGOs of Bangladesh fit in well with the world bank ?s description of them as service-oriented, but their role in overall development endeavor is subject to question. However, the role of the NGOs in the environment category has earned more credibility and commendation as they surely play a role in raising community environment consciousness, promoting protection and the needs of sustainable development in a government with democratic credentials, effectiveness and credibility can use them as state?s eyes, ears and arms for both the ends.